What do you get when you pay top dollar for a sink or a faucet? Less money to spend on the rest of your kitchen. Our tests found that despite the hype, sink and faucet prices have little to do with performance.
We compared thick stainless steel sinks to thin ones, heavy cast-iron sinks to lightweight acrylic, and chrome faucets to stainless steel and nickel models. Months of testing found that the sink manufacturer isn’t as important as the material. And when it comes to faucets, exterior finish, not brand, determines durability.
As prices increase, so do choices. More money also means more elaborate claims. Elkay says its Mystic sink has “a magical quality that draws visitors into conversation and interaction.” While this $1,300 to $2,100 trough-style sink makes an eye-catching second sink, your budget might need some magic to afford it.
We tested 16 top-mount, double-bowl sinks and 16 faucets in a variety of materials, finishes, and prices from major manufacturers including American Standard, Delta, Elkay, Grohe, Kohler, and Moen. Because sinks made of the same material performed similarly in our tests, we based our Ratings on materials, not brands. Our faucet information starts on page 44.
You might not cook every day, but is there ever a day when you don’t use your sink? We subjected 16 models to a barrage of hot pots, scouring pads, dropped weights, and stains. The results:
Stainless: Gauge doesn’t matter. More people buy stainless steel kitchen sinks than any other type. We tested 18- to 23-gauge sinks; the lower the gauge, the thicker the steel. We also listened to the noise made by running water and dropped weights to see if we could hear a difference between the thicker and thinner models. All resisted dents, stains, scratches, and heat, and silenced noise similarly.
Enamel: Colorful and easy to clean. These sinks, sold in two versions (enamel on cast iron or lighter, less expensive enamel on steel), are available in many colors. They were the easiest to keep clean. Our hot-pot test didn’t damage them, and scratches were less noticeable than on other sinks. But when we dropped a 5-pound weight, similar to what could happen if you dropped a heavy pot, enamel-on-steel sinks dented, cracked, or chipped. Enamel on cast iron chipped when we dropped a sharp, light object similar to a knife on them. Damaged enamel can cause the metal underneath to rust. Acrylic sinks might look like enamel but they scratch easily. Our hot-pot test melted the surface.
Solid surface: Smooth but fragile. These sinks can be paired with counters made of the same material for a sleek, seamless look. Though solid-surface sinks scratch easily, the damage can be sanded away with abrasive products. A heavy-duty scouring pad even removed burns. But beware: Some solid-surface sinks shattered during our impact tests.
“The sink must be functional; then you can fall in love with the look,” says Billie Brenner, who owns a kitchen and bath showroom in Boston. Most people do the opposite, she adds. So check the pros and cons of different sink styles and mounts in First Things First, on page 43, before you fall in love.
Count inches. Double-bowl sinks let you perform two tasks at once, such as soaking and rinsing. But if the bowls are too narrow, it will be hard to fit large pots or roasters. If your space is tight, a single bowl is better. Take a large pot with you to the store to check size. Sinks that are rectangular shaped are standard, but D-bowls have a curved back and offer more space, front to back.
Think about depth. Bowls are 6 to 12 inches deep. The deeper ones reduce splashes, but a sink that’s too deep can require lots of bending and make it difficult for short adults to reach the bottom. Remember that under-mounted sinks will be up to 11/2 inches lower than a drop-in.
Most faucets have lifetime warranties that cover leaks and stains. Though prices range from $80 to $600, we found few performance differences among the 16 models we stained, scratched, banged, and yanked.
Better valves and tougher finishes are now common on all but the cheapest faucets. That’s why we based our advice on finish, not brand, and why there are no Ratings.
The exterior of some faucets are bombarded with charged metal atoms that chemically bond to the surface of the base metal in a process called physical vapor deposition, or PVD. Different metals impart different finishes, including nickel and bronze. Faucets with PVD finishes resisted our best attempts at scratching them. But corrosives like drain cleaner can stain them slightly.
Chrome, another popular finish, is pretty durable but can be scratched if you rub it with a heavy-duty scouring pad. Just use common sense when cleaning your faucet and it will stay scratch- and stain-free.
We tested single-handle pull-out faucets, the fastest-growing style. They combine spray head and spout for added convenience and flexibility. But our findings are applicable to other faucets, too. Here’s what we found:
Bronze finishes aren’t the same. Bronze offers an alternative to the shiny metal look. We tested two bronze faucets. The one without the PVD finish was the least resistant finish in our abrasion tests. The one with the PVD finish was fine.
Side handles are harder to use. Overall, single-handle faucets are easier to use. But those with a side-mounted handle aren’t as easy, especially if your hands aren’t clean and you’re trying not to dirty the handle. There’s also less clearance between this type of handle and the backsplash. So you might bang your knuckles turning on the hot water.
You’ll pay $90 to $300 for a single-handle pull-out faucet in chrome or epoxy, $170 to $500 for nickel or bronze, and $130 to $400 for stainless steel. Keep these tips in mind when shopping:
Count holes. Most sinks come with mounting holes drilled for faucets. If you’re not changing sinks, you’ll need to match what you have or get a base plate to cover extra holes. The base plate, which may be included, can also be used to cover holes in your countertop if that’s where your faucet will be installed. It’s not a good idea to try to drill additional holes in an existing sink or countertop.
Single-handle faucets are generally the simplest to use and install. Two-handle models are harder to use if your hands are full or dirty.
Consider spout styles and function. Straight-spout models are compact and often inexpensive, but you might need to move the faucet to fit a big pot under it. Gooseneck models have higher clearances, but they can cause splashing if your sink is shallow. No matter what type you pick, make sure the faucet head swings enough to reach all of the sink, especially if you have a wide or double-bowl sink. Also keep the faucet proportional; a large sink looks funny with a small faucet, and vice versa.
Think about installation and repair. Replacing a faucet and a sink at the same time is easier because the faucet can be installed in the sink or counter before the sink is put in place. Fittings that can be tightened with a screwdriver also streamline installation. Long water-supply hoses let you make connections lower in the sink cabinet, where tools are easier to use. Though most faucets are guaranteed not to leak, if yours does, the manufacturer will give you only the replacement part. It’s up to you to install it.
Guide to the Ratings
Overall score mainly denotes stain and scratch resistance. Stains reflects resistance to stains from common foods and cleaning products. Scratches is resistance to damage from nylon and metal scouring pads. Impact shows resistance to significant damage from blunt and sharp objects dropped from up to 20 inches. Heat is resistance to burns from a pot filled with oil and heated to 400[degree] F. Noise is based on sound transmission from a stream of water and the impact of a sharp, metal object.
RELATED ARTICLE: Features that count These enhance functionality
Single lever: Mixes hot and cold water, and takes up less counter space. Those that can be turned off without losing the temperature setting are better than models that require you to reset the temperature every time you turn on the faucet.
PVD finish: Physical vapor deposition finishes are scratch resistant, though some staining can occur. Available in nickel, copper, pewter, bronze, gold, and polished brass.
Supply hoses: The longer the hoses, the easier it is to connect them to the water supply.
Pull-out spout: Combines a spout and a spray head with a swivel that increases the hose’s flexibility. Hoses should be long enough to reach into corners of the sink.
Spray/stream selector: Finger-friendly buttons on the side of the spray head allow you to easily go from spray to stream. Buttons stay in mode even after turning the water flow off and back on.
Base plate: Covers the extra holes in your sink or counter. If you’re buying a new sink with the right number of holes, you won’t need one.
Counterweight: This helps the hose and spout retract properly.
Despite its name, going with the flow is not how Chicago Faucet became a leading manufacturer of industrial and residential plumbing products. By staying on top of new technology, the company transformed its cumbersome product identification process into an on-site, fully computerized labeling system for bar coding before it was mandated by distributors. Since 1901, the Des Plaines, Ill., company has significantly extended its product line by offering fittings that can be integrated with others to create hundreds of different faucet combinations. This multitude of combinations also required hundreds of unique preprinted identification labels.
Paper labels were preprinted with standard information and graphics to identify each faucet, while variable information – like catalog numbers and specifications – was either handwritten or stamped in place. After the information was filled in, the labels were applied onto corrugated product boxes with glue. However, the ends of the labels tended to curl, necessitating the use of extra tape to secure the label. Not only did this method create a large, expensive label inventory, but the unflattering labels didn’t reflect the company’s top-quality reputation.
In anticipation of implementing more automation into its processes, specifically by moving towards automatic identification, management investigated the possibility of moving its labeling on site. Keeping abreast of its industry, management knew that its distributors would soon require UPC bar codes to track products through warehousing operations. Without moving to automatic identification, preprinted bar codes would create an even larger inventory of labels. “We wanted to get a head start rather than scramble when our customers demanded bar codes,” explains Bill Butchart, the firm’s data processing manager. “By being in front, we can determine our own direction rather than follow others.”
The company decided that the best way to incorporate its old label information with new UPC codes was through its own System 38 midrange computer system. The key was to find labeling software that could easily integrate with the company’s MRP 11 system, which tracks each product work order as it’s processed. “It would be virtually impossible to maintain a separate database with current information on a stand-alone labeling system,” says Butchart. “All of the necessary product data already are loaded into the midrange computer and promptly updated. With another system, we’d have to repeat each change.”
With that in mind, Bill Haag, the company’s product and systems engineer, explored various labeling systems and suppliers through industrial magazines, the Industry Bar Code Alliance, and automatic identification trade shows. He found that very few labeling software packages were available for midrange computers, and suppliers that did offer the software usually didn’t include the printers or labels. “It was important to us that we used one source for our turnkey labeling system,” says Haag. “We wanted a funnel for all of our labeling questions, from support to service to supplies.”
Weber Marking Systems, Arlington Heights, Ill., was able to provide Chicago Faucet with a complete labeling system, including Legitronic Midrange Labeling Software, three 80 series thermal-transfer printers, customized labels, and a bar code verifier. By calling the Legitronic software from its existing manufacturing system, the firm’s engineering users are able to design various label formats for different-sized labels and product lines. Variable information, such as product specifications, ANSI information, and proper UPC bar codes, are gathered from the manufacturing system and appropriately placed into the format.
Now an operator on the manufacturing floor just keys in the catalog number and quantity of the product to instantly call up a particular label format. When an order is ready to be packed, the labels are printed by one of the thermal-transfer printers located on the plan floor. All three printers can be used simultaneously to run labels for different products without changing label media. “We print all of our labels as we require them. Now if there is a product change, we don’t have hundreds of obsolete labels or a long lead time for new preprinted labels,” says Butchart.
The thermal-transfer printers provide high-density bar codes and alphanumeric text on custom labels preprinted with the company’s logo. Labels for the decorative faucets include special type fonts that reflect the appearance of the product line. All labels are manufactured and supplied by Weber. After the labels are printed, the bar codes are periodically inspected with a Quick-Check verifier. This handheld unit checks the accuracy, contrast, and spacing of bar codes in order to meet UPC criteria.
Each product box then is labeled and palletized. The pressure-sensitive labels eliminate the use of glue along with its messy and time-consuming process. The result: consistent, uniform labels that enhance the packaging and are easy to read. “I’m constantly receiving letters from customers announcing their plans for bar coding,” says Butchart. “With our new system, we’re more than ready for them.”
Pilar pull-down kitchen faucet with patented Touc[h.sub.2]O Technology is inspired by the fusion of technology and nature. Pilar performs to fit today’s busy lifestyles while its transitional look coordinates with any decor. Designed for consumers who are looking for a smarter, cleaner and more efficient way to work in their kitchen, Pilar with Touc[h.sub.2]O Technology is an exciting new option for today’s kitchen projects.
At the core of the faucet’s unique offering is Touc[h.sub.2]O Technology. With this intuitive innovation, the user can start and stop the flow of water with just a simple touch anywhere on the spout or the handle. When hands are messy during food preparation and clean up, a touch of a forearm or wrist is all it takes to operate. Touc[h.sub.2]O Technology makes it easier to turn off the water flow in between tasks, saving water.
Pilar operates manually, as well as with Touc[h.sub.2]O functionality. The handle adjusts flow rate and temperature. A blue LED light indicates when Touc[h.sub.2]O Technology is engaged, and turns red when the batteries need to be replaced. Pilar also incorporates a two-function pull-down spray head that switches from stream to spray with the click of a diverter button. Delta’s exclusive MagnaTite [TM] Docking engages the spray head to its docked position, keeping it securely in place.
Pilar features Delta’s patented DIAMOND [TM] Seal Technology, which combines a durable DIAMOND Valve with InnoFlex [TM] PEX waterways. The result is no leaks, no lead, no worries. Once inside the faucet, water is not in contact with potential metal contaminants. Pilar’s high-arc spout swivels 360 [degrees] for greater functionality in the kitchen. This provides ample clearance for pots, plates and other large cooking utensils.
Available with the features consumers want
Pilar with Touc[h.sub.2]O Technology fits into any decor. The pull-down kitchen faucet is available in Chrome and Brilliance [R] Stainless finishes with an optional, coordinating soap dispenser.
At Delta, it is our primary goal to develop stylish and innovative products and solutions that add convenience, enhance performance, and improve consumers’ everyday experience with water. Delta delivers exceptionally well-made, stylish faucets and related products that are precisely crafted to be beautiful both inside and outside. Using relevant innovation, the brand is committed to helping concerned consumers identify simple ways to incorporate conservation into their everyday lives.
Dedicated to a total customer experience, Delta invests in internal processes and systems to ensure exceptional customer satisfaction. A worldwide leader in faucets and related accessories, Delta sells products in more than 53 countries.
There are many types of faucets now available on the market. And there is one type of faucet which is antique faucet. Antique faucet is made for people who want a vintage style home. But it is quite hard to find the most suitable antique faucets for your bathroom. Here are some reviews about some of the best for you.
The high price of this antique faucet is worth it because of its quality, appearance and durability. These antique faucets are made of black matted iron which gives the faucets a reminiscent appearance of Victorian period. Moreover, there are some others choices of materials such as stainless steel, chrome or oil-rubber bronze which are cheaper than the black matted iron one.
Not only does this antique faucet have beautiful appearance, but it is also of high quality. For example, if your house has problems with water source and the pressure is low, this antique faucet allows the flow of water to be smooth and strong enough for any normal housework task. Furthermore, the design of this antique faucet is high-arc so you will have lot of space to work. And, this faucet is a two-handle one with lever rotates which increase the pressure of water and makes the flow of cold or hot water stronger. In addition, the spray and hydro lock quick connect system of this faucet is in the same side of the finish, which can snap lines of water without any tools.
To install this antique faucet, you need a 4-holes deck. But if you install it on a 2-holes one, you must give up the same side escutcheon and spray. In summary, this faucet will upgrade your kitchen and make it more charming and elegant.
This brand of antique faucets is also an expensive one, but with its high quality and beautiful appearance this antique faucet is a great choice for someone who wants a luxury kitchen.
It is an antique faucet with an antique copper finish made of heavy-pattern brass. And as a two-handle faucet, this faucet has two handles, which can twist, allows you to control the temperature of water. Furthermore, it also has dish valve, which is made of ceramic, make the flow of water smoother and make sure there is no dripping water.
Matching bronze is the material of this antique faucet’s spray which is a pull-out one. And if you want to install this faucet you need a typical 4-hole deck mount. In addition, Danze antique faucets also have long duration life, so this beautiful Victorian antique faucet will make your kitchen more elegant and timeless
At the top of expensive faucets, Moen S711 is truly a great choice for your Victorian kitchen. First, its finish is made of iron black matte which makes it very unique and antique. Second, as a three-hole deck mount, this faucet is very easy to install. Moreover, its handle is a separate one and you can choose the most suitable level for each case.
Furthermore, the side spray of this antique faucet are separated and placed in the same side of the finish of this faucet. The flow of water is steady and smooth while the pressure of the water is preserved. In conclusions, this Victorian antique faucet definitely will bring your kitchen to the whole new level of luxury and elegance.
Hopefully, these recommend will be helpful for you.
More than ever, today’s kitchens are the centers of our homes, We gather with friends and family in these intimate spaces to enjoy culinary delights and partake in meaningful conversations. We feel a connection and sense of comfort in the kitchen environment that allows us to express ourselves naturally.
In an effort to help you create living spaces in your home, Kohler is proud to introduce a wide array of innovative kitchen products, KOHLER[R] Cast Iron sinks with Smart Divide[TM], Undertone, stainless steel sinks with a D-bowl shape, and the unique, textural Sea Salt color, as well as new finishes and accessories, offer exceptional performance, design versatility and added convenience.
Forte[R] kitchen faucets, available in high spout and pullout models with a Vibrant[R] Stainless finish, maximize functionality for food preparation and cleanup tasks. The new HiRise[TM] pot filler, reminiscent of commercial-grade cooktops and ranges, enhances flexibility for home chefs. From workstations worthy of a professional to more traditional configurations, our leading-edge products help create the perfect kitchen.
Featuring a textured, three-dimensional color, Sea Salt combines neutral KOHLER colors and organic materials to give it unique depth and character. This sophisticated neutral color. available for kitchen and bathroom environments, offers versatile coordination with fixtures and appliances in complementary color palettes.
The new Smart Divide[TM] low-profile basin divider is designed to add convenience and functionality in the kitchen. Half the height of conventional dividers, this innovation provides more clearance for cleaning large pots and pans. Featured on Iron/Tones[TM] and Langlade[TM] cast iron sinks, Smart Divide successfully bridges the gap between form and function, proving that less is sometimes more in kitchen sink design.
A. Iron/Tones Smart Divide K-6625-FF undercounter kitchen sink in Sea Salt and bottom basin racks K-6058 ST/K-6059-ST and Vinnata[R] K-690-BV kitchen sink faucet with pull down spray in Vibrant, Brushed Bronze.
B. Langlade Smart Divide K-6626-2-96 self-rimming kitchen sink in Biscuit and Vinnata K-690-BV kitchen sink faucet with pull-down spray and Wellspring[TM] K-6666-BV beverage faucet in Vibrant Brushed Bronze.
C. Langlade Smart Divide K-6626-6U-R1 undercounter kitchen sink in Roussillon[TM] Red.
D. Dickinson[TM] K-6546-4U-KC undercounter kitchen sink in Vapour, Blue and Clairette[R] K-692-G kitchen sink faucet with pull-down spray in Brushed Chrome.
E. Woodfield[TM] K-5805-4U-Y2 undercounter kitchen sink in Sunlight and Forte[R] K-10416-CP kitchen sink faucet and sidespray in Polished Chrome.
F. Deerfield[TM] K-5815-5U-96 undercounter kitchen sink in Biscuit with Coralais[R] K-15160-CP kitchen sink faucet with pullout spray, sidespray and K-9619-CP soap/lotion dispenser in Polished Chrome.
G. Delafield[TM] K-5817-4-47 self-rimming kitchen sink in Almond and Forte K-10430-BV kitchen sink faucet with remote valve and K-9619-BV soap/lotion dispenser in Vibrant Brushed Bronze.
The gentle curves of Undertone[TM] kitchen sinks with a D-bowl shape feature a graceful flowing aesthetic that enables kitchen tasks to be performed with ease. Crafted of 18-gauge stainless steel with a generous 9 1/2-inch depth, these sinks offer exceptional durability and maximize usable basin space. Available in a variety of configuration options with a Brushed Satin finish, new Undertone sinks highlight the appeal of solid-surface countertops and create stylish, highly functional workspaces.
PRO TaskSink[TM] sinks eliminate the boundaries of kitchen task areas for preparation, cooking and cleanup. The sleek, 39-inch configurations of these highly durable, 18-gauge stainless steel sinks lend commercial appeal to hardworking residential kitchens.
By reversing the configuration of several popular Undertone, kitchen sinks, homeowners have more options to create functional, user-friendly prep and cleanup areas, These sinks offer” a generous basin depth of 9 1/2 inches to provide added utility in the kitchen.
A. Undertone K-3185 NA extra-large undercounter kitchen sink with D-Bowl shape, bottom basin racks K 2994-ST/K-2995-ST and K-2989 NA universal cutting board. Clairette[R] K-692 CP kitchen sink faucet with pull-down spray in Polished Chrome.
B. Undertone K-3185-NA extra-large undercounter kitchen sink with D Bowl shape and Forte, K-10433 VS kitchen sink faucet with pullout spray in Vibrant[R] Stainless.
C. PRO TaskSink K-3374 3-NA high/low countertop kitchen sink, hardwood cutting board K-3138-NA and ProAvatar[TM] K-6340-CP kitchen sink faucet with pullout spray in Polished Chrome.
D. Undertone K-3148-NA double equal undercounter kitchen sink with D Bowl shape and K-2997-ST/K-2998 ST bottom basin racks. Fairfax[R] K-12231-CP kitchen sink faucet in Polished Chrome.
E. Undertone K-3355-L-NA high/low undercounter kitchen sink and Avatar[TM] K-6350-B4 kitchen sink faucet in Vibrant Brushed Nickel with front lever handle and pullout spray in Vibrant Polished Nickel.
F. Undertone K-3099-NA high/low undercounter kitchen sink with D-Bowl shape and Avatar K-6350 B4 kitchen sink faucet in Vibrant Brushed Nickel with front lever handle and pullout spray in Vibrant Polished Nickel.
G. Undertone K-3166-L-NA triple-basin undercounter stainless steel kitchen sink and ProAvatar K-6340-CP kitchen sink faucet with pullout spray and Wellspring[TM] K-6665-F-CP beverage faucet in Polished Chrome.
Forte pullout and high-spout faucets offer versatile functionality and efficiency in the kitchen. With a spout height of 8 11/16 inches and a reach of 10 1/8 inches, the Forte faucet with pullout spray maximizes flexibility for a variety of preparation or cleanup tasks. And the new Forte high-spout faucet, with its simple curves, features a best-in-class spout reach and height that ensure added workspace for large containers. Its remote valve allows users to move the spout with one hand while operating the handle to control water flow and temperature with the other.
Inspired by professional cooktops and ranges, the HiRise[TM] kitchen pot filler provides commercial-grade utility for home chefs. Its tubular design and up to 24-inch overall reach enhance functionality and convenience by alleviating the need to lean over the cooking area, and double quarter turn ceramic disc valves ensure reliable on/off operation. The HiRise kitchen pot filler is designed for a wall-mount installation, and a deck-mount version is available for island or remodel installations.
A. and B. Forte[R] K-10433-VS kitchen faucet with pullout spray in Vibrant[R] Stainless.
The new Vibrant Stainless finish coordinates well with cast iron sinks and complements kitchens that feature stainless steel sinks and appliances.
C. Forte K-10430-BN kitchen sink faucet with remote valve in Vibrant Brushed Nickel
D. Fairfax[R] K-12231-BN two-handle kitchen sink faucet in Vibrant Brushed Nickel.
E. Fairfax K-12185-CP kitchen sink faucet with remote valve in Polished Chrome.
The Fairfax faucet line now includes a two-handle model, as well as a remote valve faucet, to provide added convenience and versatility in the kitchen.
F. HiRise K-7323 4-BS deck mount pot filler in Brushed Stainless.
G. HiRise K-7322-4-BS wall mount pot filler in Brushed Stainless.
One the greatest researchers in this area of plumbing, Tom Konen, recently passed away. Tom was a research professor at Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, N.J. One of Tom’s admired research projects is the queuing theory. “Queue” means to wait in line.
Hence, the queuing theory is the study of human nature in the use of toilet rooms when there is a line. I would often see Tom sitting outside toilet rooms during meetings or large gatherings. He would observe the action of people using the plumbing fixtures, and their response if there was too long a line.
The published data from Professor Konen helped modify the plumbing fixture requirements in all of the model plumbing codes. His data also helped to solve the potty parity problem at stadiums, arenas and large theaters. Women can thank Tom for balancing the waiting time to use plumbing fixtures. While he admitted that the wait will not disappear, Tom Konen knew that we could balance out the wait in line between the male and female population.
When water conservation measures were first being considered, Tom was in the forefront. He would often question the environmental and water conservation enthusiasts about the data on the human nature side of water use. The response, in the beginning, was always the same, “Don’t worry, the people will get used to it.” The effort was strictly, “save water, save water, save water.”
What I learned from Tom Konen was the need to study human nature in the use of plumbing fixtures. He would instruct on the importance of studying the way people use fixtures, the way they react, and the tolerance they have in using fixtures.
The initial method of conserving water was to lower the maximum flow rates for kitchen sinks, lavatories and showers to 2.5 gpm. These values must be periodically reviewed in an effort to further save water. Ignoring the shower, let me review the use of water from faucets.
Closer Look: A few years ago, lavatories and kitchen sink flow rates were lowered to 2.2 gpm; however, this flow rate is measured at a pressure of 60 psi. If a flow restrictor is used, 2.5 gpm at 80 psi is equal to 2.2 gpm at 60 psi. Hence, there was no change to the standard flow-restrictor-type of aerator.
While all of the flow rates were equal, human nature in the use of these fixtures varied from one fixture to the next. The flow rate of public lavatories was reduced to 0.5 gpm. This is perhaps the least enforced section of the federal requirements for water conservation. Some inspectors think that if you put in an electronic faucet, the aerator can be set at 2.2 gpm. Of course, that is not true. The law permits either a flow rate of 0.5 gpm or a cycle of 0.25 gallons of water.
Let’s start with the public lavatory first. I expected the public to be opposed to a 0.5 gpm aerator. In my observations, the 0.5 gpm has been well accepted. The preferred flow pattern seems to be a straight stream as opposed to multiple small streams of water. People are not cursing the faucets, saying, “Give me more water!”
The greatest objections are to electronic faucets that are not properly set up. Watch people respond to an electronic faucet when the water doesn’t turn on right away. They start moving their hands around, trying to encourage the faucet to turn on. Then they get frustrated and go to the next faucet, waiting for it to turn on. Not all of the manufacturers have reached the optimum performance of electronic faucets. Perhaps the human nature studies by certain manufacturers were not as complete as they should have been.
If you study the use of the kitchen faucet, you will find the human response to be interesting. A kitchen faucet is the most used faucet in the house. My observations have been that a kitchen faucet is often opened only to the extent necessary for the task at hand. The flow is adjusted to either low or high flow.
The most popular faucet is the pull-out spray faucet. When these faucets are properly used to wash dishes, a flow rate of 2.2 gpm is necessary. When the faucet is turned upside down after being pulled out, you need enough flow to wash the dish, pot or pan. People become quickly frustrated when the stream of water is inadequate to properly wash away soap film. When pots, bottles or glasses are filled with water, the flow rate doesn’t matter. The person using the kitchen faucet wants to fill the item as quickly as possible. Additionally, there is no waste in water, since all of the water is being collected in a vessel. In other words, the best way to conserve water use in a kitchen faucet is to pay attention to how people use the kitchen faucet.
For example, when potatoes are peeled in the garbage disposal, some people leave the water on the entire time they are peeling the potatoes. Others will turn the water off while pealing, and turn it on when washing the potatoes after peeling. The latter saves a considerable amount of water. More water is saved by the behavior modification than by lowering the flow rate through the aerator.
In a bathroom, human nature is somewhat different. The lavatory’s faucet is more likely to be turned full open or full closed. This is especially true with children. Again, this behavior can be modified. However, I have found that there is a greater savings of water if the flow rate is significantly lowered. Rather than a 2.2 gpm, I have been observing those using a l-gpm lavatory aerator. You may think that 1 gpm is an inadequate flow for a lavatory faucet. But, think of the function of the lavatory faucet. There is enough water to wash your hands and face, enough water to shave and enough water to brush your teeth.
The downside of the 1-gpm aerator is the wait in the early morning for hot water. This is a part of human nature that is truly interesting. Most people will simply turn on the hot water and wait for the water to get hot. They do not use the water for any other purpose. While you could start brushing your teeth with the cold water coming out of the hot water side, most people consider that gross. After all, the water was already heated.
Read more: Faucet companies partner with Web sites
Following this logic, it wouldn’t matter what flow rate was used. The clean water is merely running down the drain until the hot water arrives. With a lower flow rate aerator, it simply takes a little longer. As for the wait for hot water, I have observed that the higher-income bracket is less patient than the middle-and lower-income brackets. This is something to keep in mind when installing the hot water system. For higher-income homes or units, it is sometimes worthwhile to install a hot water recirculation line.
I am going to miss my friend Professor Tom Konen, but he left a legacy for us to follow. We need to study the human nature side of our profession. Start considering the human side of water conservation, and think about a change in aerators that you use on a lavatory faucet. Julius Ballanco is president of JB Engineering and Code Consulting, P.C. He can be reached at 1661 Cardinal Drive, Munster, IN 46321. His phone number is 219/922-6171.
Food is one of the most important things of our life. Everybody wants to have delicious meals, so obviously, you need dishes and blows which need cleaning after using. If you need to wash them by hand, then there are a lot of types and styles of bar sink for you. Basically, there are 6 types of bar sink faucets which bases on purpose and appearance.
If you want to buy a single-handle faucet, make sure that the space between your sink and the backsplash or the wall is enough for the handle when you rotate it. Moreover, if your bar sink has additional sink hole, a sub nozzle or dispenser for soap may not be a good idea for your bar sink.
This kind of faucets have two handle which one is for hot water and the other one controls cold water. The sprayer is usually divided into two paths, and the handle can be part of the foundational board or divide mounted.
The spout of this types has connected with source of water by a hose, which allow it to move easier and farther. In addition, it is no need to worry about retracting the hose and spout because there is a counterweight hides under the sink to pull the hose and spout back into position neatly.
Hand free faucets have an activator on the front of the hose which is relatively easy to locate. To activate the manual operation, you just need to cover the sensor with somethings than slide it out.
Relatively common in Europe restaurant’s kitchens, pot-filler faucets are now even popular with home kitchens. Wherever it is installed, deck or wall, it must be near the stove. And an arm which can move like a robot arm allows you to reach far spaces in your kitchen and can be arranged neatly.
This faucet is designed for high-end kitchen which have an extra sink. Therefore, it will help you freeing up space at your main sink. Especially, when you have more then two cooks to do, two sinks with this faucet will be very helpful. If you have one, a smaller bar faucet, which match the faucet, is your choice.
Hopefully, this article will help you.
Bay windows are the ideal addition to kitchens to improve lighting and add to the illusion of space. Three innovative designs for attractive bay windows are presented. These three remodeled kitchens each feature a sink with a view
KITCHEN REMODELS don’t have to be large in scale to make a big change. One of the most satisfying small additions you can make is a bay window in an outside wall. And we’re not talking just the traditional three-sided bay. Distinctive shapes can be used to bring light and airiness to one of the most hardworking rooms in the house.
OPENED FOR VIEWS AND DAYLIGHT
Melanie and Steve Spahr of Lake Oswego, Oregon, wanted to brighten and expand their small kitchen with a minimum of obvious structural changes to the house’s exterior. As part of a remodel that included removing walls between the kitchen and adjacent rooms, Portland architect Jerry L. Ward added a 30-inch-deep bay to th Spahrs’ kitchen. The traditionally shaped bay, with angled sides and a broad, flat front, was tucked unobtrusively under the existing eaves without altering the pitch of the roof.
Daylight also streams into the bay from both sides and overhead. One angled sid wall contains an operable window, while the other has a 9-square-foot opening filled with glass blocks. Covering the clear block wall is a wall-hung cabinet with glass doors that lets light through while providing storage space. To introduce even more natural light, Ward opened a section of the 8-foot-high ceiling above the bay to add a pair of 5-foot-long skylights.
Opening up part of the kitchen ceiling to the rafters and adding a skylight als played a part in this kitchen remodel designed by San Francisco architects Hous + House. In this kitchen, though, the original roof line played no role in shaping the bay. Instead, the bay’s external footprint was determined by an angled countertop that seems to thrust through the outer wall like the bow of a runaway boat.
This sense of collision is enhanced by the bay’s stuccoclad peak pushing upward through the eaves of the shallow-pitched roof. The countertop and bay shapes introduce contemporary lines to the 1960s ranch-style house. The opened ceiling, black slate floors, stainless steel backsplash, and uncluttered, gray-stained maple cabinets help to update the house.
ROUNDING OFF THE EDGES
With no overhanging eaves to shelter it, the 5 1/2-foot-wide bay that projects 1/2 feet from this house could have seemed too conspicuous. However, a curving window that arcs across the front of the frame and an overhead trellis scale down the appearance of the bay and blend it with the rest of the house.
The bay has its own mini-roof and downspout. Its side walls contain two operabl windows, but the center of attention is the curving pane. The 4-foot-high windo is 1/2-inch tempered glass, custom formed to follow the bay’s curve. Inside, th bay wraps around a generous granite display countertop behind a stainless steel sink. Design was by Los Angeles architects Scott Johnson, of Johnson, Fain and Pereir Associates, and Margot Alofsin.
As you know, blender is one of the household appliances in every kitchen, especially with families with children, the blender is indispensable. The role of blender is not controversial, but have you ever questioned what kind of blender is good? Or any good blender? This article will be with you to find out in detail what kind of blender best buy today – 2018.
In the beginning, let’s take a look at the core issues to choose from for a good blender for the home. It is important to evaluate that any blender that is good does not have to depend on your needs, not just price, design or material, design is sufficient.
In this section, consider what kind of blender is there? Characteristics of each type.
Speaking of blenders, you would probably think of a swivel mill and a millstone above for fruit and grind! In fact, blenders are now being introduced by manufacturers into many different types and models.
In the simplest and most complete way, the blender can be divided into the following categories:
This is a blender with a compact design, simple, low cost and of course just grind the fruits, food is quite soft. Mini blender is the right solution for you if you need a machine to carry around for temporary trips such as work, travel or picnic.
The hand blender, as its name suggests, is a versatile blender when you can grind food in a variety of containers. In return, the speed and purity of the hand blender is not equal to the fixed grinders.
The most common type of blender, usually consisting of a rotating cylinder, two dry and wet grinders. Basically, if you use the right way, the blender will usually meet the needs of the food mill of most families.
This type of blender usually consists of a rotating cylinder and a variety of grinding mills such as dry grinding, grinding, meat grinding, soybean meal, fruit juice …
Despite its slightly different name, the multifunction blender can still be considered a blender, as it also includes the same functions as a multipurpose blender, plus fruit juicer.
This type of blender is often used in restaurants, cafes, multipurpose blenders that allow you to grind even large stones, grinding time is also much faster than conventional blenders.
In the next section, we’ll talk about choosing the right blender – the most popular blender, the most sought after.
The blender has quite a variety of prices to cater for different price needs. Specifically, the cheapest blender costs only 250 thousand dong, not to mention the machines of unknown origin are imported from China. The highest priced blender costs up to over 10 million VND, owned by KitchenAids.
The most popular today is the blender costs from 400 thousand to 800 thousand. This is an acceptable price for a fruit and food processor in the home.
Think about it, do you need a blender before buying? Why?
Because of the fact that every blender is quite time consuming, especially the cleaning step after each blender. For this reason, in fact, we can see that many families buy blenders for several times and then leave.
Assessing your needs accurately will help you make the right decision whether to buy a blender.
How affordable is the blender selection?
We are less interested in this issue when choosing to buy a blender. The fact is that just for home use, the capacity is not so important, because the manufacturers have designed a reasonable capacity.
In more detail, the higher the capacity, the faster the grinder is, the more grinding it will take, and the more common it is to grind hard foods. The normal capacity of the blender is 200-300w, while the high capacity is 500-600W.
The miller capacity will determine whether the blender is milling more or less each time. Therefore, the capacity selection will usually depend on the number of members in your family. For a normal family of 4-5 people, choosing a capacity of 1.2 – 1.5 liters is reasonable.
There are two important parts of the blender that you should consider the miller and blade.
There are two types of materials used to make mills popular plastic and glass, each has its own advantages and disadvantages:
Plastic grinders are a lighter type grinder, which is more convenient to use, but more difficult to clean, and if the plastic is not good quality will affect the food safety and hygiene.
Glass mill: heavier, may break if not careful but easier to clean, better hygiene. With the blade, the current is made of stainless steel, but the blade material is very different. We can hardly check the blade material, which can only be estimated through the cost of the machine. A cheap blender can be bent, warped or even rusted. The better the blade, the better it will be. Noise The blender will certainly produce noise, however, so most blenders now have a self-gripping base, which makes the machine more stable and reduces noise considerably. The noise level of a blender depends on the type of grind, glass or plastic grinder. The most noisy blender is the cheap, the uncertain design, the plastic mill. Manufacturers After reviewing the most common factors as mentioned above, you finally have to return to the question: So what is the ultimate blender of the company? The answer is no good and no bad company, if you look at the famous manufacturers. So, in the next section, let’s take a look at the top blender brands today.
Philips: Blender The Philips blender is a fairly well-known brand, with a number of striking features including good materials, long-term warranties, but the price is quite high, ranging from 6 hundred thousand to more 3 million VND. Some of the strengths of the Philips blender can be overwhelmed by the multifunctional, high capacity, easy to clean.
Sunhouse: Sunhouse Blender is also a strong brand in the market with products from the conventional blender to versatile. Compared with Philips, the Sunhouse is much more competitive, only from 250 thousand to 1.5 million. However, the quality and durability of the Sunhouse blender is generally lower.
Panasonic: Panasonic blender is also a notable brand of blender, with medium to high price segment. Panasonic blenders and multifunction blenders range from 6 hundred thousand to 4 million VND. Some features of the Panasonic blender are safe design, sturdy mill, stainless steel blades or titanium blades. Blender Comet Blender has some good quality models and prices are quite competitive in the market. Comet blender with glass mill, stainless steel blade.
Bluestone Blender: Blender is one of the brands currently in the market, priced from 7 hundred thousand to more than 2 million. Features of the blender Bluestone is glass mill, stainless steel blade, smooth operation.
Kangaroo: Kangaroo Blender is also a successful brand in the blender market, with models priced from 3 to 6 hundred thousand. Features of the Kangaroo Blender are the glass mill, a popular 350W power, non-slip base.
Supor Blender: Supor Blender is mainly a model of normal blender, consisting of a dry grinder and a wet grinder, cost from 6 hundred thousand to more than 3 million. The features of the Supor grinder are simple two-speed mechanisms, glass or plastic grinders, stainless steel blades.
Magic Plus Blender: This is a blender brand consisting of only two main models, Magic Plus MP01 and MP02. Features of the Magic Plus blender are easy to use, stainless steel blades, plastic blenders. Bosch blender The Bosch blender is known for its high capacity, plastic blender, durable use, but its price is quite high compared to the product.
Microwave, or microwaves, is a household appliance that uses microwave energy to act on water in food and thereby generate heat to cook food. It is a convenient way to cook food, warm the food in the modern kitchen of every family. Microwave oven is a great assistant in conquering the kitchen but it can also cause some difficulties for you when used incorrectly or not. Here’s how to use it to get the most out of your microwave oven, for both the oven and the oven.
Read the manual carefully. The user guide is accompanied by a product with all the useful information that you can follow, especially the well-known safety warnings. Some thoughtful cooks also offer microwave recipes – a great way to test new menus for the whole family.
Note the power outlet. Microwave ovens often have a large capacity of 800-2000W so do not plug too many electrical appliances in the same outlet as they could cause electrical problems.
Set the time
– If your microwave oven is a stove, turn the control knob to the desired position.
– Particularly electronic furnace, you enter the set time in minutes and seconds, after the furnace operation.
– You may need to press the Cook / Start button to operate.
Practice some simple cooking recipes
It is not too difficult to cook or simmer some simple dishes from the oven. When making these dishes, the general model has some accumulated experience so that when making more complicated dishes it will not be too difficult. scarf with you too. Some items may be available for you to try out in the beginning:
– Bake 1 – 2 potatoes / sweet potatoes in the microwave.
– Heat food at low power.
– Keep warm coffee or milk if you want but carefully milk overflowing!
– Make popcorn packed in a supermarket or convenience store, for the oven to operate until no longer heard the “snake”.
– Croissant, boiled vegetables …
Contrary to most traditional cooking methods such as gas stoves or electric stoves, heat is directly applied to the surface of the food. Microwaves use microwaves to influence water molecules to heat food. When using the furnace, the heating by the water molecules is divided into two phases:
Water contained in food is heated by extremely short waves.
Hot water transfers heat to other parts of the food.
-Do not cook dry food, no or little water like cake, unless the dish is in microwave recipes.
-Do not cook food with or without water unless it is in microwave recipes
When cooking food with little water, you can put a glass of water into the oven so it absorbs the wavelengths and moistens the food, so the food does not dry out or burn.
– Microwave ovens do not cook food from the “inside out” but basically the oven is cooked thin food at the same time, separate food with thick oven will work long and low in the interior. So when cooking you should put soft food in the middle of the oven, and let the thicker type on the outside.
– Microwave size is small, capacity about 17-25L, metal shell, so the electromagnetic waves reflected back and easy to form a standing wave. So in the microwave should choose to have rotating glass plate so that food on the plate always move the place to eat cooked food and even heat, in case of hot spots cold.
– Microwave ovens use low frequency electromagnetic waves, so it is easy to penetrate paper, wood, porcelain, porcelain and glass. more food, less power consumption. In contrast, this wave is not absorbed by the metal, it will be very strong reflection and spark, so avoid metal such as spoons, dishes, bowls decorated with metal edges in the oven to avoid danger. for user.
– When cooking a lot of food, the electromagnetic waves do not affect all the food parts but directly into the food, leading to the thinning of the thin layer on the outside and the heat inside is caused by heat. , so should not cook the whole volume but should be small enough. Especially, if the egg in the microwave oven shell does not heat up but the white and yolk absorb very strong electromagnetic waves, the hot flashes the egg.